In The Origin Of The Eukaryotes, Endosymbiosis (2023)

1. Eukaryotes and their Origins | Organismal Biology

  • The leading hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotes, called the endosymbiotic theory, is that eukaryotes arose as a result of a fusion of Archaean cells with ...

  • Microfossil evidence suggests that eukaryotes evolved sometime between 1.6 and 2.2 billion years ago during the Proterozoic. Prior to the origin of eukaryotes, all life on Earth was prokaryotic (lacking nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles). The leading hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotes, called the endosymbiotic theory, is that eukaryotes arose as a result of a fusion of Archaean cells with bacteria, where an ancient Archaean engulfed (but did not eat) an ancient, aerobic bacterial cell. The engulfed (endosymbiosed) bacterial cell remained within the archaean cell in what may have been a mutualistic relationship: the engulfed bacterium allowed the host archean cell to use oxygen to release energy stored in nutrients, and the host cell protected the bacterial cell from predators. Over many generations, a symbiotic relationship developed between the two organisms so completely that neither could survive on its own. The descendants of this ancient engulfed cell are present in all eukaryotic cells today as mitochondria.

2. 28.1: Eukaryotic Origins and Endosymbiosis - Biology LibreTexts

  • Dec 4, 2021 · This major theme in the origin of eukaryotes is known as endosymbiosis, one cell engulfing another such that the engulfed cell survives and both ...

  • Living things fall into three large groups: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. The first two have prokaryotic cells, and the third contains all eukaryotes. A relatively sparse fossil record is available …

3. Endosymbiotic selective pressure at the origin of eukaryotic cell biology

  • Nov 10, 2022 · The last eukaryotic common ancestor, LECA, was a complex cell that united all traits characterising eukaryotic biology including a mitochondrion ...

  • All the characteristic traits of the eukaryotic cell, the basic unit of all macroscopic life, commenced to originate in a prokaryote as means to serve an endosymbiont today known as mitochondria.

4. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin - PMC - NCBI

5. Origin of Mitochondria | Learn Science at Scitable - Nature

  • Because it posits that eukaryotes evolved from the mitochondrial endosymbiosis in a prokaryotic host, this theory directly accounts for the ubiquity of ...

  • Mitochondria are often introduced as the ATP-producing “powerhouses” of eukaryotic (nucleus-bearing) cells, but they fulfill essential roles in a number of other cell processes, including biosyntheses, programmed cell death, and the assembly of iron-sulfur clusters, to name just a few. Mitochondria are always surrounded by two membranes, and most mitochondria, but not all, contain their own DNA, which is an evolutionarily reduced bacterial chromosome. Since the early 1900s, mitochondria were suspected to have arisen through an endosymbiosis — one cell coming to live within another. By the 1970s, the existence of DNA in mitochondria and the overall similarity between mitochondrial ATP-producing biochemistry and that in free-living bacteria provided strong evidence in favor of that view. There is no longer any doubt that mitochondria arose through endosymbiosis, but there is currently a plurality of ideas about the kind of bacterium the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiont was, the nature of the host that acquired the endosymbiont, and the nature of the initial symbiotic interactions that associated the host and the endosymbiont in their fateful encounter.

6. Endosymbiotic theory - Definition and Examples - Biology Online Dictionary

  • Jun 30, 2023 · A eukaryotic cell is distinct from a prokaryotic cell by the presence of membrane-bound cellular structures called organelles.

  • Endosymbiotic Theory explained. Know its definition and history. Take the Endosymbiotic theory Biology Quiz!

7. Evidence for endosymbiosis - Understanding Evolution

  • When you look at it this way, mitochondria really resemble tiny bacteria making their livings inside eukaryotic cells! Based on decades of accumulated evidence, ...

  • Biologist Lynn Margulis first made the case for endosymbiosis in the 1960s, but for many years other biologists were skeptical. Although Jeon watched his amoebae become infected with the x-bacteria and then evolve to depend upon them, no one was around over a billion years ago to observe the events of endosymbiosis. Why should we

8. The Origin and Evolution of Eukaryotes

  • Endosymbiosis is universally accepted to have played a major role in the evolution of eukaryotes (most obviously, in the origin of cellular organelles such as ...

  • A new type of review journal, featuring comprehensive collections of expert review articles on important topics in the molecular life sciences

9. The Origin of Eukaryotes: Where Science and Pop Culture Collide

  • May 4, 2018 · In 1905, the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski first proposed symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory. This theory states that organelles ...

  • How did eukaryotic life evolve? Here, one of the most puzzling questions in evolutionary history meets Star Wars and the Marvel Universe.

10. 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins - Biology 2e | OpenStax

  • Mar 28, 2018 · Describe what scientists know about the origins of eukaryotes based on the last common ancestor; Explain the endosymbiotic theory. Organisms are ...

  • Data from these fossils, as well as from the study of living genomes, have led comparative biologists to conclude that living eukaryotes are all descend...

11. Mitochondria and the origin of eukaryotes - Knowable Magazine

  • Jun 8, 2022 · Instead of being digested, the bacterium took up permanent residence within the other organism as what biologists call an endosymbiont.

  • Knowable Magazine is from Annual Reviews, a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.

12. 13.2 Eukaryotic Origins – Biology and the Citizen

  • The evolution of mitochondria likely preceded the evolution of chloroplasts. There is evidence of secondary endosymbiotic events in which plastids appear to be ...

  • By the end of this section, you will be able to:

13. Endosymbiosis: The Origin of Eukaryotic Cells - Earth How

  • May 12, 2022 · Endosymbiosis sparked the origin of eukaryotic cells. It's the idea that a prokaryote engulfed a bacteria and became mitochondria part of ...

  • Endosymbiosis sparked the origin of eukaryotic cells. It's the idea that a prokaryote engulfed a bacteria and became mitochondria part of eukaryotic cells.

14. Endosymbiosis - The Appearance of the Eukaryotes

  • Endosymbiotic Theory Introduction ... The hypothesized process by which prokaryotes gave rise to the first eukaryotic cells is known as endosymbiosis, and ...

  • Endosymbiosis - The Appearance of the Eukaryotes

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